From the results of the present investigation it is revealed that both Cad Sulph-30 and Cad Sulph-200 showed remarkable potential to reduce genotoxic effects produced by CdCl2 although the drug itself had no palpable genotoxic effects of its own when fed to normal healthy mice. Incidentally the results were essentially similar to different potencies of Ars Alb used against arsenic poisoning [30–35, 41, 42]. It would also be revealed clearly that Cad sulph-200 rendered more pronounced protective effect, particularly at longer fixation intervals.
Cadmium poisoning in certain areas, particularly at or near Zinc mines and Zinc processing factories, paint industries, has crossed tolerable limits. Incidentally, cadmium has been reported to significantly inhibit E. coli and human DNA polymerase activity [43, 44]. When growing cultures of E. coli were exposed to cadmium, considerable single-strand breaks were reported to occur in DNA . Further, Privezentsev et al reported that cadmium genotoxicity observed in both in vivo and in vitro cells of mice would be due to single-strand breaks in DNA through the direct cadmium-DNA interactions. In our present study also, we noted quite a good number of plates with clear chromosomal damage indicative of DNA breaks and other forms of lesions. Therefore, the search for a protective agent which may be used without any fear or risk of toxic side effects to prevent/repair such damages seemed to us to be important. From the encouraging and positive modulating action of the potentized Cad Sulph observed in the present study, these drugs could be suggested as strong candidates for combating unintentional/accidental exposure to sub-acute cadmium poisoning, both as a preventive as well as curative agent.
In the present study the homeopathic drug apparently enhanced/activated the process of maintaining the structural integrity of chromosomes and sperm either protecting them from the destructive ability of CdCl2 in causing DNA damage or else, by enhancing the process of repair of DNA already damaged by activating specific enzyme systems to repair the damage.
Incidentally, there are inherent mechanisms of DNA and chromosome repairs [47, 48] which are known to be genetically controlled. The same is true for the regulation of cell cycle events. In the present study also we have noted a positive shift in the mitotic index in the CdCl2-fed mice which may be linked to the replenishment of bone marrow cells, the necessity arising out of the exclusion/loss of damaged marrow cells due to the toxic chemical interaction of CdCl2 to chromosome components primarily made up of DNA and protein. The repair mechanisms of chromosomes, therefore, also involved inherent mechanisms for repair of protein damage, a process also under a precise genetical control [47–49]. Therefore, any mechanism that can repair/protect cytogenetical effects must necessarily be regulated by specific genetic mechanisms essentially controlled by specific genes. Theoretically speaking even in the absence of a single original drug molecule both Cad Sulph-30 and 200 elicited spectacular ability of protection/repair to damaged chromosomes and sperm, a fact which would lead one to speculate that the drugs must have acted through the genetic regulatory mechanisms. In fact, Khuda-Bukhsh  explained the possible mechanism of action of the potentized homeopathic drugs by suggesting that one major way by which the potentized homeopathic drugs acted was possibly through regulation of expression of certain genes. This could be achieved by activating certain hormones and enzymes through transduction of specific regulatory signals including transcription factors (either inducive or repressive in nature) on target cells, in order to get them back to their normal state of functioning. The results of this study will also strengthen this view.